air conditioning

What is air conditioning? / Air conditioning schematic diagram/ How AC system works on ships? / What does “ TON” mean in AC and why is it important? / Ideal AC condition.

What is air conditioning?

It is an electrical device which is used for maintaining temperature, moisture & quality of air in the interior of an occupied space or room. The primary purpose of air conditioning is to create a room climate comfortable for humans. It controls the humidity of a room from 30 to 65% as permitted while the temperature is kept within an ideal range.


An air conditioning system is similar to a refrigeration system but here the required temperature is set and can be changed by the user. In this system, the evaporator works for both cooling and heating. A steam line or heater is fitted here for heating purposes. 

When we need cooling the evaporator takes heat from inside air and this refrigerant goes through the compressor. After that, it goes through a condenser for cooling the refrigerant and again goes into the drier and after that, it goes through the thermostatic expansion valve where pressure and temperature become very low and again this refrigerant goes through the evaporator.

When we need a high temperature for heating the room, the cold air is circulated through the evaporator, this time the steam line is turned on to heat the cold air.

Another steam line is also present and fitted to provide moisture in the air as required to maintain humidity in the air with respect to temperature. When temperature increases air water carrying capacity decreases, and relative humidity will decrease. this time steam will give the moister in the air and maintain it.

Ideal AC condition:

      Velocity- 0.15m/sec – 0.2 m/sec.

      Temp.:- 22℃ – 23℃

     Relative humidity:- 50-60%

This given data is an ideal air conditioning system.

Here velocity of air required is low because high-velocity air makes it uncomfortable to breathe. The relative humidity required is 50 – 60% to avoid dryness and itchiness. When the temperature is high but relative humidity is low the air will absorb moisture from our skin. For this reason, itchiness can occur.

What does “ TON” mean in air conditioning and why is it important?

“TON” means tonnage. 1 ton of A/C means, 1 ton of ice can cool how much air is in 24 hours, this same amount of air can be cooled by this air conditioning system within 24 hours.

The TON rating is important because it helps to ensure that an air conditioning system is properly sized for the space it is intended to cool. If an air conditioning system is undersized, it may struggle to cool the space effectively, while an oversized system may cycle on and off too frequently, leading to increased wear and tear on the system and higher energy costs. By selecting an air conditioning system with the appropriate TON rating for the space, it is possible to achieve optimal cooling performance and energy efficiency.


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